You shouldn’t have to turn off your iPhone very often. If you’re not going to use it for a few hours, it’s not worth the hassle (and minuscule battery life savings) to shut it down.
But, if you know you’re not going to use your phone for a couple days, or on a very long international flight, and you want to save every last ounce of battery life, shutting it down can be an effective option.
Also, if you suspect some bug has made your phone unresponsive or slow, the first troubleshooting step should be that old IT standby: turn it off and on again.
You used to be able to force a restart on iPhone by holding down the side and Home button for awhile—10 seconds or so. With no Home button, you have to force a reset a little differently.
To shut down the iPhone, quickly press and release the Volume Up button, then the Volume Down button, then press and hold the Side button. Your phone will show a “slide to power off” bar at the top. Slide that, and it will turn off your phone.
This is different from the emergency mode activated by pressing and holding the Side button and either volume button for two seconds. That gives you quick access to SOS mode, Medical ID, and it disables Face ID until the phone is unlocked with your passcode. This power-off method does none of that.
I have written professionally about technology for my entire adult professional life - over 20 years. I like to figure out how complicated technology works and explain it in a way anyone can understand.